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Even many delegates who shared Madison's goal of strengthening the central government reacted strongly against the extreme change to the status quo envisioned in the Virginia Plan.
Though Madison lost most of his battles over how to amend the Virginia Plan, in the process he increasingly shifted the debate away from a position of pure state sovereignty.
Since most disagreements over what to include in the constitution were ultimately disputes over the balance of sovereignty between the states and national government, Madison's influence was critical.
Wood notes that Madison's ultimate contribution was not in designing any particular constitutional framework, but in shifting the debate toward a compromise of "shared sovereignty" between the national and state governments.
After the Philadelphia Convention ended in September , Madison convinced his fellow Congressmen to remain neutral in the ratification debate and allow each state to vote upon the Constitution.
In response, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay began publishing a series of pro-ratification newspaper articles in New York. The Federalist Papers successfully defended the new Constitution and argued for its ratification to the people of New York.
The articles were also published in book form and became a virtual debater's handbook for the supporters of the Constitution in the ratifying conventions.
Historian Clinton Rossiter called The Federalist Papers "the most important work in political science that ever has been written, or is likely ever to be written, in the United States.
Madison states that in large republics the significant sum of factions that emerge will successfully dull the effects of others.
While Madison and Hamilton continued to write The Federalist Papers , Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and several smaller states voted to ratify the Constitution.
New York, the second largest state and a bastion of anti-federalism, would likely not ratify it without Virginia, and Virginia's exclusion from the new government would disqualify George Washington from being the first president.
At the start of the convention, Madison knew that most delegates had already made up their mind about how to vote, and he focused his efforts on winning the support of the relatively small number of undecided delegates.
After Virginia ratified the constitution, Madison returned to New York to resume his duties in the Congress of the Confederation. At the request of Washington, Madison sought a seat in the U.
Senate, but the state legislature instead elected two Anti-Federalist allies of Patrick Henry. House of Representatives.
Locked in a difficult race against Monroe, Madison promised to support a series of constitutional amendments to protect individual liberties.
Madison became a key adviser to President Washington, who looked to Madison as the person who best understood the constitution. He played a significant role in establishing and staffing the three Cabinet departments, and his influence helped Thomas Jefferson become the inaugural Secretary of State.
Hamilton's plan favored Northern speculators and was disadvantageous to states such as Virginia that had already paid off most of their debt, and Madison emerged as one of the principal congressional opponents of the plan.
In return, Congress passed the Residence Act , which established the federal capital district of Washington, D. During the 1st Congress, Madison took the lead in pressing for the passage of several constitutional amendments that would form the United States Bill of Rights.
He believed that the enumeration of specific rights would fix those rights in the public mind and encourage judges to protect them. His amendments contained numerous restrictions on the federal government and would protect, among other things, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and the right to peaceful assembly.
Madison's Bill of Rights faced little opposition; he had largely co-opted the Anti-Federalist goal of amending the Constitution, but had avoided proposing amendments that would alienate supporters of the Constitution.
After , the Washington administration became polarized among two main factions. One faction, led by Jefferson and Madison, broadly represented Southern interests and sought close relations with France.
The other faction, led by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, broadly represented Northern financial interests and favored close relations with Britain.
Madison used his influence in the Democratic-Republican Party and argued that empowering financial interest served as a dangerous threat to the republican virtues of the newly established United States.
Madison argued that under The Constitution, congress did not have the power to create such an institution. When Hamilton submitted his Report on Manufactures , which called for federal action to stimulate the development of a diversified economy, Madison once again challenged Hamilton's proposal on constitutional grounds.
He sought to mobilize public opinion by forming a political party based on opposition to Hamilton's policies. Because the Constitution's rules essentially precluded Jefferson from challenging Adams, [g] the party backed New York Governor George Clinton for the vice presidency, but Adams won re-election by a comfortable electoral vote margin.
With Jefferson out of office after , Madison became the de facto leader of the Democratic-Republican Party. Madison believed that a trade war with Britain would probably succeed, and would allow Americans to assert their independence fully.
The British West Indies, Madison maintained, could not live without American foodstuffs, but Americans could easily do without British manufactures.
Washington chose to retire after serving two terms and, in advance of the presidential election , Madison helped convince Jefferson to run for the presidency.
After a diplomatic incident between France and the United States known as the XYZ Affair took place, the two countries engaged in an undeclared naval war known as the Quasi-War.
Though he was out of office, Madison remained a prominent Democratic-Republican leader in opposition to the Adams administration.
Madison believed that the Alien and Sedition acts formed a dangerous precedent, giving government the power to look past the natural rights of its people in the name of national security.
Madison rejected this view of a compact among the states, and his Virginia Resolutions instead urged states to respond to unjust federal laws through interposition , a process in which a state legislature declared a law to be unconstitutional but did not take steps to actively prevent its enforcement.
Jefferson's doctrine of nullification was widely rejected, and the incident damaged the Democratic-Republican Party as attention was shifted from the Alien and Sedition Acts to the unpopular nullification doctrine.
In , after Patrick Henry announced that he would return to politics as a member of the Federalist Party, Madison won election to the Virginia legislature.
At the same time, he and Jefferson planned for Jefferson's campaign in the presidential election.
The Report of held that Congress was limited to legislating on its enumerated powers , and that punishment for sedition violated freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
Jefferson embraced the report, and it became the unofficial Democratic-Republican platform for the election.
Because Jefferson and Burr tied in the electoral vote, the Federalist-controlled House of Representatives held a contingent election to choose between the two candidates.
On September 15, , Madison married Dolley Payne Todd , a year-old widow, previously wife of John Todd, a Quaker farmer who died during a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia.
After an arranged meeting in spring , the two quickly became romantically engaged and prepared for a wedding that summer, but Dolley suffered recurring illnesses because of her exposure to yellow fever in Philadelphia.
They eventually traveled to Harewood, Virginia for their wedding. Only a few close family members attended, and Winchester Reverend Alexander Balmain pronounced them a wedded couple.
Madison never had children, but he adopted Dolley's one surviving son, John Payne Todd known as Payne , after the marriage. Throughout his life, Madison maintained a close relationship with his father, James Madison Sr, who died in At age 50, Madison inherited the large plantation of Montpelier and other possessions, including his father's numerous slaves.
Ambrose helped manage Montpelier for both his father and older brother until his death in Despite lacking foreign policy experience, Madison was appointed as Secretary of State by Jefferson.
In the case of Marbury v. Madison , Marshall simultaneously ruled that Madison had unjustly refused to deliver federal commissions to individuals who had been appointed to federal positions by President Adams but who had not yet taken office, but that the Supreme Court did not have jurisdiction over the case.
Most importantly, Marshall's opinion established the principle of judicial review. By the time Jefferson took office, Americans had settled as far west as the Mississippi River , though vast pockets of American land remained vacant or inhabited only by Native Americans.
Jefferson believed that western expansion played an important role in furthering his vision of a republic of yeoman farmers, and he hoped to acquire the Spanish territory of Louisiana , which was located to the west of the Mississippi River.
Rather than selling merely New Orleans, Napoleon's government, having already given up on plans to establish a new French empire in the Americas, offered to sell the entire Territory of Louisiana.
Despite lacking explicit authorization from Jefferson, Monroe and ambassador Robert R. Despite the time-sensitive nature of negotiations with the French, Jefferson was concerned about the constitutionality of the Louisiana Purchase, and he privately favored introducing a constitutional amendment explicitly authorizing Congress to acquire new territories.
Madison convinced Jefferson to refrain from proposing the amendment, and the administration ultimately submitted the Louisiana Purchase without an accompanying constitutional amendment.
He believed that the circumstances did not warrant a strict interpretation of the Constitution because the expansion was in the country's best interest.
Early in his tenure, Jefferson was able to maintain cordial relations with both France and Britain, but relations with Britain deteriorated after Speculation regarding Madison's potential succession of Jefferson commenced early in Jefferson's first term.
Madison's status in the party was damaged by his association with the embargo, which was unpopular throughout the country and especially in the Northeast.
On March 4, , Madison took the oath of office and was inaugurated President of the United States. Unlike Jefferson, who enjoyed political unity and support, Madison faced political opposition from his rival and friend, James Monroe , and from Vice President George Clinton.
Additionally, the Federalist Party had resurged owing to opposition to the embargo. Madison's Cabinet was very weak. Madison immediately faced opposition to his planned nomination of Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin as Secretary of State.
Madison chose not to fight Congress for the nomination but kept Gallatin in the Treasury Department. After bitter party contention, Madison finally replaced Smith with Monroe in April The remaining members of Madison's Cabinet were chosen for the purposes of national interest and political harmony, and were largely unremarkable or incompetent.
Congress had repealed the embargo shortly before Madison became president, but troubles with the British and French continued.
The gambit almost succeeded, but negotiations with the British collapsed in mid With sanctions and other policies having failed, Madison determined that war with Britain was the only remaining option.
Madison and his advisers initially believed the war would be a quick American victory, while the British were occupied fighting in the Napoleonic Wars.
These actions would give leverage for British concessions on the Atlantic high seas. Lacking adequate revenue to fund the war, the Madison administration was forced to rely on high-interest loans furnished by bankers based in New York City and Philadelphia.
Clinton won most of the Northeast, but Madison won the election by sweeping the South and the West and winning the key state of Pennsylvania.
After the disastrous start to the War of , Madison accepted Russia's invitation to arbitrate the war, and he sent a delegation led by Gallatin and John Quincy Adams to Europe to negotiate a peace treaty.
The death of Tecumseh in that battle marked the permanent end of armed Native American resistance in the Old Northwest. The British agreed to begin peace negotiations in the town of Ghent in early , but at the same time, they shifted soldiers to North America following Napoleon's defeat in the Battle of Paris.
Despite an American victory at the Battle of Chippawa , the invasion stalled once again. General William Winder. Madison quickly sent the Treaty of Ghent to the Senate, and the Senate ratified the treaty on February 16, This view, while inaccurate, strongly contributed to a feeling of post-war euphoria that bolstered Madison's reputation as president.
The postwar period of Madison's second term saw the transition into the " Era of Good Feelings ," as the Federalists ceased to act as an effective opposition party.
Recognizing the difficulties of financing the war and the necessity of an institution to regulate the currency, Madison proposed the re-establishment of a national bank.
He also called for increased spending on the army and the navy, a tariff designed to protect American goods from foreign competition, and a constitutional amendment authorizing the federal government to fund the construction of internal improvements such as roads and canals.
His initiatives were opposed by strict constructionists such as John Randolph, who stated that Madison's proposals "out-Hamiltons Alexander Hamilton.
In making the veto, Madison argued that the General Welfare Clause did not broadly authorize federal spending on internal improvements.
Upon becoming president, Madison said the federal government's duty was to convert Native Americans by the "participation of the improvements of which the human mind and manners are susceptible in a civilized state.
The treaty began with "James Madison, President of the United States," on the first sentence of the first paragraph.
Why not sell the air, the clouds and the great sea, as well as the earth? Like Jefferson, Madison had a paternalistic attitude toward American Indians, encouraging the men to give up hunting and become farmers.
Army to protect Native lands from intrusion by settlers, to the chagrin of his military commander Andrew Jackson , who wanted Madison to ignore Indian pleas to stop the invasion of their lands.
Privately, Madison did not believe American Indians could be civilized. Madison believed that Native Americans may have been unwilling to make "the transition from the hunter, or even the herdsman state, to the agriculture.
This prompted public outrage and exacerbated anti-Indigenous bigotry among white Americans, as seen in hostile letters sent to Madison, who remained publicly silent on the issue.
In , Jefferson was told Wilkinson was under a financial retainer with Spain. Wilkinson had also been rumored to have ties to Spain during both the Washington and Adams administrations.
Jefferson removed Wilkinson from his position of Governor of the Louisiana territory in for his ties with the Burr conspiracy. Wilkinson's military request for a court-martial was denied by Madison.
Wilkinson then asked for 14 officers to testify on his behalf in Washington, but Madison refused, in essence, clearing Wilkinson of malfeasance.
Later in the House investigated Wilkinson's public record, and charged him with a high casualty rate among soldiers.
Wilkinson was cleared again. However, in , Madison launched a formal court-martial of Wilkinson, that suspended him of active duty.
The military court in December cleared Wilkinson of misconduct. Madison approved of Wilkinson's acquittal, and restored him to active duty.
However, Madison retained Wilkinson in the Army, but replaced him with Henry Dearborn as its commander. Not until , when Wilkinson was court-martialled and acquitted again, did Madison finally remove him from the Army.
In the presidential election , Madison and Jefferson both favored the candidacy of Secretary of State James Monroe. Crawford in the party's congressional nominating caucus.
As the Federalist Party continued to collapse as a national party, Monroe easily defeated Federalist candidate Rufus King in the election.
When Madison left office in at age 65, he retired to Montpelier , his tobacco plantation in Orange County, Virginia , not far from Jefferson's Monticello.
As with both Washington and Jefferson, Madison left the presidency a poorer man than when elected. His plantation experienced a steady financial collapse, due to the continued price declines in tobacco and also due to his stepson's mismanagement.
In his retirement, Madison occasionally became involved in public affairs, advising Andrew Jackson and other presidents.
Madison helped Jefferson establish the University of Virginia , though the university was primarily Jefferson's initiative.
He retained the position as college chancellor for ten years until his death in In , at the age of 78, Madison was chosen as a representative to the Virginia Constitutional Convention for revision of the commonwealth's constitution.
It was his last appearance as a statesman. The issue of greatest importance at this convention was apportionment. The western districts of Virginia complained that they were underrepresented because the state constitution apportioned voting districts by county.
The increased population in the Piedmont and western parts of the state were not proportionately represented by delegates in the legislature.
Western reformers also wanted to extend suffrage to all white men, in place of the prevailing property ownership requirement. Madison tried in vain to effect a compromise.
Eventually, suffrage rights were extended to renters as well as landowners, but the eastern planters refused to adopt citizen population apportionment.
They added slaves held as property to the population count, to maintain a permanent majority in both houses of the legislature, arguing that there must be a balance between population and property represented.
Madison was disappointed at the failure of Virginians to resolve the issue more equitably. In his later years, Madison became highly concerned about his historic legacy.
He resorted to modifying letters and other documents in his possession, changing days and dates, adding and deleting words and sentences, and shifting characters.
By the time he had reached his late seventies, this "straightening out" had become almost an obsession. As an example, he edited a letter written to Jefferson criticizing Lafayette —Madison not only inked out original passages, but even forged Jefferson's handwriting as well.
McCoy writes that, "During the final six years of his life, amid a sea of personal [financial] troubles that were threatening to engulf him At times mental agitation issued in physical collapse.
It said that whichever nation stopped attacking American ships would be favored, and the US would stop trading with the other nation. France Agreed but Britain continued to impress soldiers.
Dolley Madison fled the White House taking many treasures with her when the danger of occupation was apparent. In her words, "At this late hour a wagon has been procured, and I have had it filled with plate and the most valuable portable articles, belonging to the house Our kind friend, Mr.
Carroll, has come to hasten my departure, and in a very bad humor with me, because I insist on waiting until the large picture of General Washington is secured, and it requires to be unscrewed from the wall I have ordered the frame to be broken, and the canvas taken out.
They came up with a number of amendments that they wished passed to address issues that they had with the War and the embargoes.
When the war ended and news about the secret meeting came out, the Federalist Party was discredited and eventually fell apart.
However, the embargo hurt America and its merchants and sailors more than Europe, which did not need the American goods. Jefferson ended the embargo in as he left office.
Madison continued to face problems from overseas, as Britain and France had continued their attacks on American ships following the embargo.
In addition to impeding U. In retaliation, Madison issued a war proclamation against Britain in However, America was not ready for a war.
Despite these setbacks, American forces attempted to fight off and attack British forces. The U. As the War of continued, Madison ran for re-election against Federalist candidate DeWitt Clinton , who was also supported by an anti-war faction of the Democratic-Republican Party, and won.
Despite the victory, Madison was often criticized and blamed for the difficulties stemming from the war. Trade stopped between the U. New England threatened secession from the Union.
Finally, weary from battle, Britain and the U. The Treaty of Ghent was signed in December in Europe. Before word of the peace agreement reached America, a major victory for U.
Though the war was mismanaged, there were some key victories that emboldened the Americans. Once blamed for the errors in the war, Madison was eventually hailed for its triumphs.
After two terms in office, Madison left Washington, D. Despite the challenges he encountered during his presidency, Madison was respected as a great thinker, communicator and statesman.
He remained active in various civic causes, and in became rector of the University of Virginia, which was founded by his friend Thomas Jefferson.
Madison died at Montpelier on June 28, , at the age of 85, from heart failure. Start your free trial today. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Maddison was included in an England under squad in March ,  but was unable to play due to injury.
Maddison withdrew from the squad in October due to illness. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English association football player. Not to be confused with James Madison.
Maddison playing for Leicester City in Premier League. Retrieved 10 July AFS Enterprises. Retrieved 9 October Leicester Mercury.
England Football Online. Retrieved 14 November The Football Association. Retrieved 11 March